Capsule-based crewed spacecraft such as Soyuz or Orion are often supported by a service or adapter module, and sometimes augmented with an extra module for extended space operations. Capsules make up the majority of crewed spacecraft designs, although one crewed spaceplane, the Space Shuttle, has flown in orbit.
Current examples of crewed space capsules include Soyuz, Shenzhou, Orion, CST-100, and Dragon 2. Future examples of crewed capsules include Orel. Historic examples of crewed capsules include Vostok, Mercury, Voskhod, Gemini, and Apollo. A crewed space capsule must be able to sustain life in an often demanding thermal and radiation environment in the vacuum of space.
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A space capsule is a spacecraft designed to transport cargo, scientific experiments, and/or astronauts to and from space. Capsules are distinguished from other satellites by the ability to survive ree..